Friday, August 23, 2019

Which decision of the UK Supreme Court since 1st January 2012, Essay

Which decision of the UK Supreme Court since 1st January 2012, relating to any aspect of Commercial Law, do you think the court got wrong and why - Essay Example In this case, Virgin Atlantic used Zodiac Seats for allegedly infringing the European Parent. At the same time, Zodiac filed an opposition challenging the validity of this patent at the European Patent office. Initially, the UK court ruled that the patent was valid and had not been infringed. Upon an appeal filed by Zodiac, this ruling was reversed and the patent was found to be valid and infringed. Zodiac then appealed to the Supreme Court claiming that principle of res judicata should not apply (Slorach & Ellis, 2012). The Supreme Court assessed the effect of the patent that had been declared invalid. In its judgment, it decided that the invalid patent could not be infringed and that Zodiac was entitled to claim that Virgin had suffered no loss in terms of damages. The controversy in this decision lies in the fact that the Supreme Court challenged the rational of the commercial certainty principle that was used by the court of appeal. The Court commented that in any given situation, only half the parties involved in an action demand commercial certainty. This meant that the decision impacted on the damages and patent litigation in the United

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Diagnosis and treatment of male genitourinary Essay Example for Free

Diagnosis and treatment of male genitourinary Essay 1. What is a physician that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of male genitourinary conditions called? Urologist 2. What disease causes the kidneys to overcompensate by straining within the remaining nephrons? Chronic Renal Failure 3. What are most kidney stones composed of? calcium-containing crystals 4. What are three types of bladder stones? Calcium, Uric acid, Struvite, and Cystine stones 5. A constriction of the perputial orifice that does not allow for the foreskin to fold back over the glans is called? paraphimosis 6. What is the term for the surgical removal of the uterus? Hysterectomy 7. What is the medical term for an examination/biopsy of the vagina and cervical areas? colposcopy 8. What disease or condition can lead to DUB (Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding)? Menorrhagia, Metrorrhagia, and Polymenorrhea 9. How many days are used to calculate the EDD? The due date may be estimated by adding 280 days 10.What are the terms that describe the surgical removal of a fetus through an abdominal incision? caesarean section II. Go to http://www.aapc.com and answer the following questions: Q: For the CPCÂ ® certification, what are the specific eligibility requirements We recommend having an associate’s degree. Pay examination fee at the time of application submission. Maintain current membership with the AAPC. New members must submit membership payment with examination application. Renewing members must have a current membership at the time of submission and when exam results are released. All exams will be reported with exact scores and areas of study (65% or less).A CPC must have at least two years medical coding experience (members with an apprentice designation are not required to have two years medical coding experience.) Membership is required to be renewed annually and 36 Continuing Education Units (CEUs) must be submitted every two years for verification and authentication of expertise.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Rights Contained in the U.S. Bill of Rights Essay Example for Free

Rights Contained in the U.S. Bill of Rights Essay Through the years, the Bill of Rights of the United States has stood as the embodiment of the fundamental rights and privileges of the American public — that is, for both people and important aspects of the society. As such, it is truly crucial to uphold and adhere to the said rights in the U. S. Constitution at all times. In fact, the Supreme Courts uses such foundation to implement justice and protect people from possible violations. Thus, it is through a clear identification and execution as well as appropriate description by the Supreme Court that the nation and its citizens realize the purpose and essence of the Bill of Rights. Bill of Rights: Constitution’s First Ten Amendments Mount, as the author of the online source USConstitution. net, offers an insightful outline and even relevant notes concerning the rights contained in the Bill of Rights. It is worthy to outline the Bill of Rights according to the presentation of Mount or the USConstitution. net, which states that the rights included in the Bill of Rights (the common term for the collection of the first ten amendments) are as follows: Amendment 1 Freedom of Religion, Press. Amendment 2 Right to Bear Arms. Amendment 3 Quartering of Soldiers. Amendment 4 Search and Seizures. Amendment 5 Trial and Punishment, Compensation for Takings. Amendment 6 Right to Speedy Trial, Confrontation of Witnesses. Amendment 7 Trial by Jury in Civil Case. Amendment 8 Cruel and Unusual Punishment. Amendment 9 Construction of Constitution. Amendment 10 Powers of the States and People. (2) To better understand and eventually realize the value of the Bill of Rights, Mount further explains that its initial non-inclusion in the Constitutional Convention indicates inappropriateness (1). This is because the Bill of Rights, particularly the first ten Amendments, comprises the basic rights and privileges of people and the components of the society (Mount 1). Simply put, a Constitution without a Bill of Rights can be considered as unworthy. Hence, realizing the need to clearly identify the rights and privileges which protect the public’s interests, the Bill of Rights is a part of the Constitution that must not be neglected or should not cease to exist (Mount 1). The author however clarifies that the need to respect the Bill of Rights coincides with the requirement to amend the said ten rights in order to avoid misinterpretation and incorrect application of the measure. Thus, the condition of changing the ten most important provisions is necessary that leads us now to the existence of the Bill of Rights (Mount 1). Mount then reveals that the previous efforts made by Representative James Madison were the crucial point in the realization of the Bill of Rights. It was through such event that a clear identification of what rights should come from which Amendment was carried out. The ratification of the Bill of Rights collectively known as the initial ten Amendments on December 15, 1791 (Mount 1) paved the way for the protection of people’s rights and privileges. While there are explicit descriptions and explanations on the Bill of Rights, the above-cited outline summarizes its essence in terms of the protection, freedom, and privileges of the American people. Supreme Court’s Definition Over the years, the Supreme Courts has defined the Bill of Rights as the innate rights of the people which must always be followed and preserved. This is because the nature or characteristic of the Bill of Rights poses a great significance to the lives and interests of the people and society. It is precisely the Supreme Court which supports the Bill of Rights nowadays. In a breakthrough decision, the Supreme Courts defines the Bill of Rights as fundamental forms of liberty among people. The Supreme Court has specifically decided that â€Å"After carefully considering the relevance of the 10 inviolable rights that comprise the ideological foundation on which our nation is built, the court finds that these basic freedoms remain important for the time being, and should not be overturned† (â€Å"Supreme Court Upholds Bill of Rights in 5-4 Decision† 1). Conclusion In summary, the Bill of Rights significantly outlines a person’s rights and privileges, protects one’s freedom, and signifies the condition to be empowered. While it is always emphasized that responsibility comes in every right, it is definitely highly important to observe the Bill of Rights at all times. Ultimately, it is necessary for the components of the country such as the U. S. Supreme Court to interpret the Bill of Rights as a valuable measure aimed at providing people with justice and acknowledging their rights to humane existence. Works Cited Mount, Steve. â€Å"The United States Constitution. † U. S. Constitution Online. 6 Feb. 2009. 16 July 2009. http://www. usconstitution. net/const. html#Amends. â€Å"Supreme Court Upholds Bill of Rights in 5-4 Decision. † The Onion. 14 Nov. 2008. 16 July 2009. http://www. theonion. com/content/news_briefs/supreme_court_upholds_bill

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Planning and design phase

Planning and design phase CHOICE OF PROJECT MANAGER AND TEAM MEMBERS The initial phase of the Sodor project involved the formation of the project team and the nomination of the project manager. Group 12 is made up of 4 Nigerians and 1 Vietnamese which reflects a multicultural team with each nationality possessing peculiar personality traits. The objective of the first meeting was to nominate a Project Manager and to define and agree on ground rules for project team meetings. To ensure equal participation of all team members, it was agreed that the rotational project manager system will be adopted whereby each individual in the group would serve as the project manager for 1 week each throughout the 5 week duration of the Sodor project. It was agreed that meetings will be scheduled 3 times a week by the project manager lasting no more than 2 hours each. At each meeting, specific tasks is assigned to each team member to be submitted at the next meeting day. CONTRACTOR SELECTION CRITERIA The contractor selection criteria adopted by the team is the Trade-off technique. This technique uses a scoring system to quantify specific attributes of the various contractors and provides a numerical output, the highest of which represents the best contractor choice. The use of this technique provided the best possible contractors to manage the various stages of this project. MANAGING CONFLICTS Some of the conflicts experienced by the Group 12 team in the management of the Sodor oil terminal include: Team members attitudes: Some of the team members lack motivation and commitment to participate in the project team. This is manifested as absences from team meetings, late comings to team meetings, and lack of verbal contribution to team discussions. This issue was addressed by the project manager in charge who spoke with the team members concerned. Choice of Contractors: The proposal to use Trade-Off for contractor selection was initially resisted by some team members who where in favour of using a more subjective technique. It was finally accepted after an appraisal of the objectiveness of Trade-off was done by the proponent. CONSTRUCTION CHANGE CONTROL   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  All changes which include Contractor changes, Scope, Cost, and schedule changes proposed by the project sponsor passed through a Change management process which begins with a brainstorming session by the project team on the costs and benefits of adopting the change. The changes agreed on by the project team is then reflected on the Gantt chart. Due to the choice of contractor selection technique, the changes proposed by the project sponsor during the project lifecycle had a minimal impact on the actual cost and schedule. CLOSE OUT   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The close out process involved a review of the final Sodor terminal project plan to confirm scope, cost and schedule deadlines have been met. The lesson learned document was then prepared which showed the various conflicts that occurred throughout the project and how they where managed by the team in order to provide lessons for the future. The final project plan was then presented to the project sponsor and the Group 12 team was deformed by the project manager. INTRODUCTION   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Teamwork has been found to be an essential ingredient responsible for the success or failure of projects. The effective use and management of teams for projects has been noted to be a key determinant for how successful a project will be; however, the effectiveness of a team depends on the ability of the team members to interact appropriately with one another to produce a common output. DEFINITION Hoegl(2004) defined teams as a social interaction between two or more people within an organization who share a common task. Teams have also been described as a group of people who hold themselves mutually accountable to each other and who work together to achieve a common purpose(Scholtes et al,2003). The above definitions take into account the fact that for a team to exist, certain basic ingredients need to be in place which include; mutual accountability, constancy of purpose, and a shared responsibility for success or failure. The benefits of teamwork in project management cannot be overemphasized. Teams help in the mobilization of diverse resources to a project as compared to that achieved by a single individual. Church(1998) also noted that teams provide the flexibility to use the mobilized resources thus helping to continue with the project in the event of a particular individual being indisposed. Perhaps the greatest value of teams in managing projects rests with the ability of teams to provide a synergy of the efforts of the individual team members whereby the results achieved is greater than the arithmetic sum of the contributions of the individual members to the team. FACTORS THAT AFFECT TEAM EFFECTIVENESS Team size and choice of members: Hackman(1987) suggested that there is no ideal team size for a project. Furthermore, the team size chosen is dependent on the scope of the project. In contrast, Hoegl(2003) proposed that ideally a project should be reduced to a level where the work package can be managed by a team of between 3-6 people. This helps to avoid the confusion that may arise from Too many Cooks spoiling the broth. The choice of team members also plays a role in determining team success. Trent(2003) proposed that the membership of a project team should be made up of people with the right skills and competencies to tackle the particular task at hand. A set of objective criteria should be used in choosing the members of a project team. Team leadership: Trent(1996) suggested a direct relationship between leadership effectiveness and team effectiveness. The results that a team produces depends largely on the calibre of the leadership. Teams that lack a strong and effective leadership are more likely to fail(Zenger et al,1994). The effectiveness of a leader depends on the possession of skills, experience, and the will to assume responsibility for the team performance. Resource availability: The availability of resources plays a major role in the ability of a team to produce results. Peters and OConnors(1980) postulated that the availability of specific resources can either promote or interfere with a team effectiveness. The resources needed by a team to be effective varies depending on the project scope. It may include financial, Human, and Environmental resources. Establishment of clear goals: Zander(1980) postulated that teams with clear and measurable goals perform better than teams with fuzzy goals. This is as a result of the use of clear goals by teams as a baseline through which team results can be measured. Furthermore, the use of clear and concise goals also helps the team in planning for what they can achieve within a particular timeframe. Reward and Recognition: The relationship between appropriate reward structures and team effectiveness cannot be overemphasized(Bullock and Lawler,1984). Developing a reward system that focuses on the entire team rather than individuals help in improving team motivation and hence its effectiveness. It is a fact that people are motivated to achieve results if they feel that the results provide value to the organization and this value is acknowledged by the organization. SODOR OIL TERMINAL PLANNING AND DESIGN   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The need to have a plan for the management of the Sodor oil terminal cannot be overemphasized. Grachev et al(2006) using 3M corporation as a case study proposed that a key benefit of planning upfront for a project is the creation of well defined project goals. The goals help to give direction to a teams project. Other benefits of planning include; it helps the team members in the coordination of individual tasks by providing clearly stated assignments. Furthermore, the project plan also enables the team to have an overview of the project schedule, costs and constraints which the team can then use as a baseline to measure actual project progress.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The planning and design of the Sodor oil terminal started with the identification of the Cost, Schedule and Scope goals from the data derived from the Project Sponsor. These goals where then integrated into a sequential structure by the use of the MS Project ® to produce the Sodor oil terminal preliminary Gantt chart. Multiple adjustments to scope, cost, and schedule data was proposed by the project sponsor which resulted in iterative changes to the project plan leading to changes in the project cost and time of completion. The final Sodor oil terminal plan is a comprehensive document showing the actual budget, time of completion, scope of the project, and the approved contractors selected for the project. Christina(2009) proposed that key factors that affect team success at the planning and design phase include; Well-Defined Goals: The definition of clear project deliverables has been shown to improve the success rate of project teams. Pinto and Slevin(1988) proposed that clearly defined and structured goals is a significant factor that determines the effectiveness of teams and hence the success rate of projects. The goals of the Group 12 team where clearly stated and well defined at the onset of the project which was to deliver a project plan within 98 weeks at no more than the stated project budget provided by the project sponsor. Management Support: Pinto and Slevin(1988) suggested that the support upper management gives a team helps in facilitating team success. This occurs by facilitating the release of resources to the project team hence ensuring their efficiency and helping to remove administrative bottle necks. Group 12 received the support of the project sponsor in the designing of the sodor plan especially with respect to weekly review meetings to assess the current status of the project plan and proffer ways to bring the plan back on track. Cross-Cultural teams: The importance of having multiple individuals from different cultures in a team has been proposed to impact positively on team results(Earley and Mosakowski,2000). Ochieng and Price(2009) also suggested that the effective use of proper communication techniques to handle cultural differences in a team helps in promoting project success. Multiple cultures in a team brings together people with different skills, competencies, and personal attributes dedicated to a common purpose. The multicultural environment of Group 12 provided a pool of diverse ideas derived via brainstorming from which the best possible solution was agreed on and translated into the Sodor project plan. Team experience and continuity: Pinto and Slevin(1988) suggested that the inclusion of individuals with specific project experience into a team helps in promoting its success. This is because this individuals already have a knowledge of the critical factors needed to ensure the success of the particular project from the lessons learned from past projects managed by them. Scott-Young(2009) suggested that the stability of a team throughout the project lifecycle helps in ensuring team success. Stable teams have been shown to maintain the consistency of ideas generation and are not susceptible to the distraction that tends to occur from a team member joining or leaving the team(Akgun and Lynn,2000). The use of team members with a wide range of experience managing projects like healthcare, education, and engineering played a key role in the results of Group 12. This is due to the diverse nature of the knowledge pool available for planning the project. The stability of the Group 12 team th roughout the project lifecycle also played a key role in the design of the sodor project plan. CONSTRUCTION AND CLOSEOUT Handling Conflicts: The absence of conflicts in a team has been proposed to be a pointer to the failure of the team(Saj-Nicole and Damon). The presence of conflicts and how the conflicts are managed indicates how successful the project team will be. The nature of the conflicts i.e. conflicts relevant to the project scope, serves to provoke a generation of ideas from the project team on the best way to manage the crises. Several conflicts arose during the management of Group 12; an example will be the, Who to choose as the project manager? The way it was managed was to have a face to face meeting with the project team, everybody laying their individual ideas on the table, then arriving at a decision mutually beneficial to everyone which is to have a rotational project manager system with each member of the project team ‘having a taste of the pie of being the project manager for 1 week each. This solution helped during the construction phase of the plan because all the team membe rs felt a sense of belonging and making a positive contribution to the team. Leadership: The proposal by Akgun and Lynn(2000) on the positive benefits of leadership continuity to the project team success is largely not applicable to the Group 12 project team. This is because the use of a single leader throughout the project lifecycle will have led to the presence of domineering tendencies being shown by the individual chosen which may affect certain decisions made during the formulation of the construction plan. It will also have led to project team members being made to feel they are not a part of the team. Hence in a bid to avoid this scenario, the rotational project manager system was proposed and adopted. Lessons-learned documentation: The preparation of the lessons learned document is an essential part of the project team closure phase(PMI,2008). The lessons learned document captures the lessons learned at various milestones in the planning of the project. The final meeting of the Group 12 team was a brainstorming session to identify various challenges we had during the creation of the Sodor project plan and how the challenges where managed. CONCLUSION This paper details how the Group 12 team managed the Sodor project from design to the closeout phase. It explains in detail the various factors responsible for the success of the team in arriving at the final project plan; and also the various challenges Group 12 team had and how those challenges where managed to produce positive results. The paper sheds light on the key factors that affect various stages of the project and how they where harnessed and utilized positively by the Group 12 team. REFERENCES Scholtes, P.R. Joiner, B.L. Streibel, B.J(2003) The team handbook.3rd Edition, Oriel Incorporated, USA. PMI(2008) A Guide to the Project management body of knowledge. 4th Edition, PMI, Newton square, USA. Hoegl, M(2004) ‘Smaller teams-better teamwork: How to keep project teams small. Business horizons, Vol.48, Nos.3, pp.209-214. Church, A.H(1998) ‘From both sides now: the power of teamwork-fact or fiction?. Team performance management, Vol.4, Nos.2, pp.42-52. Hackman, J.R(1987) ‘The design of work teams. In: Lorsch, J.W(1987) Handbook of organizational behaviour, Prentise-hall, USA, pp.315-342. Trent, R.J(2003) ‘Planning to use of work teams effectively. Team performance management: An international journal. Vol.9, Nos.3, pp.50-58. Zenger, J. Musselwhite, E. Hinson, K. Perrin, C(1994) Leading teams:mastering the new role. Irwin, Homewood, USA, pp.14-15. Trent, R.J(1996) ‘Understanding and evaluating cross-functional sourcing team leadership. International journal of purchasing and materials management. Vol.42, Nos.2, pp.29-39. Peters, L.H and OConnors,E.J(1980) ‘Situational constraints and work outcomes: the influences of a frequently overlooked construct. Academy of management review, Vol.5, Nos.3, pp.391-397. Zander, A.F(1980) ‘The origins and consequences of group goals. Retrospections on social psychology. Oxford university press, New York, USA. Bullock, R.J and Lawler, E.E(1984) ‘Gainsharing: a few questions and fewer answers. Human resources management. Vol.23, Nos.1, pp.23-40. Grachev, M.V. Rogovsky, N.G. Bobina, M.A(2006) ‘3M: Role model for emerging markets? Thunderbird International Business review, Vol.48, Nos.6, pp.803-821. Iles, P and Hayers, P.K(1997) ‘Managing diversity in transnational project teams. Journal of managerial psychology. Vol.12, Nos.2, pp.95-117. Pinto, J.K and Slevin, D.P(1988) ‘Critical success factors across the project lifecycle. Project management journal. Vol.19, Nos.3, pp.67-75. Cohen, S.G and Bailey, D(1997) ‘What makes teams work: Group effectiveness research from the shopfloor to the executive suite. Journal of management. Vol.23, Nos.3, pp.239-290. Scott-Young,C(2009) ‘Team management for fast projects: an empirical study of process industries. International journal of operations and production management. Vol.29, Nos.6, pp.612-635. Akgun, A.E and Lynn, G.S(2002) ‘Antecedents and consequences of team stability on NPD performance. Journal of technology management, Vol.19, pp.263-286. Earley, P.C and Mosakowski, E(2000) ‘Creating hybrid team cultures: and empirical test of transnational team functioning. Academy of management journal. Vol.43, Nos.1, pp.26-49. Ochieng, E.G and Price, A.D.F(2009) ‘Managing cross-cultural communication in multicultural construction project teams: the case of Kenya and UK. International journal of project management. Vol.10, pp.101-106. Saj-Nicole, A.J and Damon, B(2009) ‘How to pick a good fight. Harvard business review. Vol.87, Nos.12, pp.48-57. Christina, S(2009) ‘Team management for fast projects: an empirical study of process industries. International Journal of operations and production management, Vol.29, Nos.6, pp.612-635.

Symbolism in Sweat by Zora Neale Hurston Essays -- Hurston Sweat Symbo

Symbolism in Sweat by Zora Neale Hurston "Sweat" by Zora Neale Hurston is filled with symbolism ranging from images that are easily captured to things that require a little bit more insight. Religion has apparently played a major role in Hurston's life, readily seen in "Sweat" with the references to a snake and Gethsemane. Symbolism plays a big part of this story and after analyzing these, they give the story a deeper meaning and can enlighten the reader as to the full meaning of "Sweat". The most apparent symbol in the story is the title, "Sweat". It is also mentioned in the story, "Looka heah, Sykes, you done gone too fur. Ah been married to you fur fifteen years, and Ah been takin' in washin' fur fifteen years. Sweat, sweat, sweat! Work and sweat, cry and sweat, pray and sweat" (Hurston 679). The "Sweat" is the product of Delia's hard work supporting them. It stands for her work ethic and how she has tried to make her work as best as she can, it is a big part of her life. Another easily recognized symbol in this story is that of the snake. "Sykes, what you throw dat whip on me like dat? You know it would skeer me - looks just like a snake, an' you knows how skeered Ah is of snakes" (Hurston 678). The snake is the main symbol in this story, it ties it together because it is mentioned at the beginning of the story and at the end. Sykes decides to bring a snake into their home, "Look in de box dere Delia, Ah done brung yuh somethin'.Syke! Syke, mah Gawd! You tak...

Monday, August 19, 2019

Desertification :: essays research papers

Essay: What is desertification, where is it found, and what are the causes? Desertification is the process by which land dries up eventually over time and the land turning to desert. This is common in Africa where most of the terrain is a desert. It is believed that the Sahara desert was once fertile ground but now it is dried up. Sand as far as the eye can see and very little rainfall occurs in this region. About 2500 B.C., the climate of the Sahara changed. Africa was once a fertile plain but where the Sahara lies was once a fertile plain capable of harvesting foods nearly anytime of year due to the warm weather. But it slowly dried up. As the land became parched, the desert spread. The process of desertification devours thousands of acres of cropland and pastureland each year. As the region dried the people retreated. With no water and little food the land became inhabitable. Most people migrated south towards the marshlands and the savannah. It is believed on of the causes of the Sahara is due to over harvesting of crops. It is believed that the Paleolithic people had learned how to cultivate in the Nile valley then spread out and established permanent villages. Archeologist say quite a few of the villages existed on the Sahara. Due to the farming over many years the land dried up due to the lack of minerals and lack of water. The Bantu is what is believed to be the remnants of those who use to farm in the Sahara region. And archeologists have been able to track their migration by studying their language patterns. The Bantu were originally nomadic herders who traveled throughout Africa caring for their flock.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

racism Essay -- essays research papers

One sentence that summarizes economics is, â€Å"there’s no such thing as a free lunch.† Sure, anyone can have a lunch and not pay for it, but it still is not free. Everything costs something to someone. Even if you don’t pay for your lunch, someone will, whether it be your lunch partner, the restaurant manager, the owner, or the people who supply the raw materials to make that food. Everything acquired by a person or a community is accompanied by a price, monetary or not. Jaime Fox said, â€Å"Ain’t nothing in this world for free, and it blows my mind how many fools just don’t get that.† I agree with this statement. Many forms of literature, such as Martin Luther King’s speech â€Å"I Have a Dream† and â€Å"Learning to Read and Write† by Fredrick Douglas, have documented the high price paid for freedom and basic human rights; they show that even freedom, where the root word is â€Å"free†, has an expensive tag.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Usually, when we think of something as being free, we associate it with money. I believe Jaime Fox’s statement can be applied to so much more than â€Å"bought† materials. For many years, African Americans and other minorities have been fighting for freedom, a right that has been won with hard work, spilled blood, broken bones, and tears. This is the ultimate price tag. In Dr. King’s speech he claimed that by signing the Constitution and the Declaration of independence, the â€Å"architects of our republic wrote a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men—yes, Black men as well as white men—would be guaranteed the inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note insofar as her citizens of color are concerned† (447). He urges his audience, of both white and black citizens, to fight fo r these rights promised to all Americans. â€Å"We have come to cash this check, a check that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice† (448). He insists that they fight with their minds and not their force. Dr. King and all those who listened to him, who fought with him, who put their lives in danger with him, they, put the down payment on endless lease we have taken out on freedom. Although Dr. King’s discussion of freedom has affected everyone in America personally, his address of freedom was on a larg... ...w York (147). Nothing he gained was free, he has to fail, be beaten, learn to write, and then devise a life-threatening plan to be able to have the most basic of freedoms. During his time, it wasn’t a right, it was a privilege he was legally denied. New generations seem to have forgotten that high costs were stapled to the back of liberty. We think that basic human rights is something that everyone should have immediately. Some believe that these rights should be imposed as early as conception. People sometimes forget that although we are now only paying â€Å"maintenance fees,† our ancestors had to buy it with the currency they had. In order for all of us to enjoy the same civil rights, people before us had to suffer without them. Like Fox said, â€Å"many fools just don’t get that.† Today, many Americans still believe we are fighting for freedom in our country. We still fight for freedom of expression, freedom from segregation, and freedom to be who we are. Jaime Fox did say that nothing in this world is free. He was right. No one can feed a person for free because it will impose a cost on someone else. The funny thing is, that even the things that don’t cost anything to give to someone